Sunday, May 24, 2020
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.0 INTRODUCTION HIV/AIDs has been ranked among the common disease of all times that is threatening us with the extinction of youths and adults. It is not only terrorizing the entire generation but also kills and leaves millions of orphans for the oldest grandparent to carter for. 2.1 HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA According to USAID brief (2004), Nigerian epidemic is characterized by one of the most rapidly increasing rates of new HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa. Adult HIV prevalence increased from 1.8% in 1991 to 5.8% in 2001. This infection rate, although lower than that of neighboring African countries should be considered in the context of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s relatively among population of approximately 117Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Gilberto (2003) further opined that recognized AIDS victims who are treated nastily and viewed as living corps, the are usually rejected by friends and sometimes denied by relatives and out rightly deprived of their means of livelihood must be discouraged, as this certain to cause serious obstacles or discouragement in their efforts to fight the virus already eating deep into their immune systems. It is pertinent for individuals parents, guardians and NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s to rise up and face the challenges of the murderous intentions of AIDs vir us and not the victims or else, HIV/AIDS virus victims would continue to go into hiding for fear of not being treated as outcast and thereafter deliberately spreading it to innocent people before their own time. 2.2 HIV/AIDS: A DEVELOPMENT ISSUE Macintyre Kate Lisanne and Steven (2003) are of the view that; HIV/AIDS was initially conceived of as a health issue, and was separated from the general development context Ã¢â¬â it was a problem to be dealt clearly by health professionals. It is now clearly that the HIV epidemic is clearly associated with and exacerbated by the wider challenging to development poverty, food and childhood insecurity and gender inequality. The systemic effects of the disease are inarguable. A holistic approach to programming is needed in order to address the effects of theShow MoreRelatedEPIDEMIOLOGICAL REPORT OF HIV/AIDS INFECTION IN NIGERIA INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: HIV (Human2400 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REPORT OF HIV/AIDS INFECTION IN NIGERIA INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus which infects, impairs or destroys the cells of the immune system and functions. Progression of the infection (severe immunodeficiency) leads to weaker immune system rendering an individual susceptible to more infections. These infections are termed opportunistic infections. At its most advanced phase, HIV is called AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)Read MoreThe United Nation s Millennium Development Goals1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis the combat of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria in all countries. There are many countries that have made significant progress in the combat of disease; Nigeria is no exception. This is due to Nigeria exponentially increasing there treatment and counseling facilities for HIV/AIDS, along with the distribution of millions of insecticide-treated products to combat malaria. However, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that their fight is over; and there are many ways that Nigeria can improve today. This c ase studyRead MoreHiv Is A Human Immunodeficiency Virus1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPicture this: a young child who is very skinny, ribs and all other bones are showing through the skin, they are born with HIV. it then leads to AIDS, due to their parents. HIV is a Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If HIV is left untreated, it can lead to AIDS, which is an acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In Nigeria, Africa millions of people have the disease of AIDS and HIV. There is not many treatment options or solutions for this serious issue that takes place all over the country. There are aRead MoreExamining Knowledge Attitude And Sexual Practice Towards Hiv / Aids Among Students1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEXAMINING KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND SEXUAL PRACTICE TOWARDS HIV/AIDS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA: A PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS BY RASHEEDAT OLUWAKEMI OJIKUTU AND MONSURAT OLUBUKOLA OJIKUTU INTRODUCTION Several studies were reviewed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS among secondary schools students in Nigeria, in order to determine the existing gaps and to provide future recommendations. Specific Aims The specific aims for this review are as follows;Read MoreLow Life Expectancy in Developing Country of Nigeria666 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdiseases such as HIV/AIDS. This essay will look at the main causes of these problems and give possible solutions, taking Nigeria as a case study, where life expectancy is 52 years with a rank of 182 out of 194 nations (WORLD HEALTH REPORT 2000). It will conclude by arguing that media and government need to take a more active approach to tackle these problems in developing countries. Nigeria has over 160 million people and one of the major problems effecting life expectancy is the HIV virus and acquiredRead MoreAids, Hiv, And Aids1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAIDS and HIV in Africa Picture this: a young child who is very skinny, ribs and all other bones are showing through the skin, they are born with HIV. it then leads to AIDS, due to their parents. HIV is a Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If HIV is left untreated, it can lead to AIDS, which is an acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In Nigeria, Africa millions of people have the disease of AIDS and HIV. There is not many treatment options or solutions for this serious issue that takes place all over theRead MoreHiv And Its Effects On Nigeria, Lower Respiratory Infections, And Hiv ( Cdc )884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs of 2013, the CDC listed that the top 3 causes of mortality in Nigeria are malaria, lower respiratory infections, and HIV (CDC, 2013). HIV is the third leading cause of deaths in Nigeria and account for 9% of all deaths (CDC, 2013). HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It can be contracted through the exchange of bodily fluids with another infected individual. I n Nigeria, the spread of HIV occurs through high prostitution rates, unsafe sexual practices,Read MoreThe Millennium Development Goals : A Global Vision For The Future1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThey created a momentum that brought the issue of development back on the international agenda, overcame aid fatigue and galvanized the public. With the MDGsÃ¢â¬â¢ expiration date of 2015 fast approaching, the world community is focusing on the development of a post-2015 agenda. This paper seeks to contribute to this process by highlighting the main strengths and weaknesses of the MDGs in Nigeria and Haiti, deriving the lessons that can be learned from almost 15 years of experience with the MDGs. BuildingRead MoreAids : Hiv And Aids1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA Introduction The first case of HIV was reported in 1981 and since then, it has spread rapidly turning into a pandemic (WHO 2014). Thirty-five million people currently live with HIV worldwide and 2.1 million deaths were recorded in 2013 (WHO 2014). HIV in the WHO African region is the highest in the world as the continent bears 70% of the disease burden (WHO AFRO 2013). In 2013, 24 million people in Africa were reported to be living with HIV. One of the high burden countries inRead MoreImpact Of Hiv In Nigeria704 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmillion (PRB 2016) and an HIV prevalence of 3.4% (FMoH 2013), HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health concern in Nigeria. Recent estimates indicate that the annual number of new infections in the country has been on a steady decline, decreasing from 288,870 in 2009 to 220,394 in 2013 (NACA 2014). NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s epidemic is generalized, with wide variations in HIV prevalence within the country, across age groups, and population sub-groups. Across age groups, the national HIV prevalence ranges from
Monday, May 18, 2020
D1) Evaluate how nature and nurture may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development at infancy and adolescence. Introduction To achieve D1 I am going to evaluate how nature and nurture can affect the PIES development at infancy and adolescence. Firstly nature (when inheritance of genes and characteristics are involved) and nurture (when environmental influences and how people are brought up) can both affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s development. In this evaluation I am going to evaluate how the nature affects the PIES at infancy and what theories are behind them. Secondly how the nurture can affect the PIES in infancy. Then I will go on to evaluate how the nature can affect the PIES in adolescence and then how the nurtureÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This could mean that while the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development is progressing, they may be less active than others. Intellectual-Nature Whilst the mother is pregnant if the baby is exposed to toxic chemicals, foods of a certain kind, or also stress from the mother then this can permanently change the cognitive development. Infancy is one of the main times when the child begins to develop their intellectuality so this means that if any of the above have been exposed to much to the baby, when they are going through infancy they may struggle with their cognitive development. Those mothers that smoke, eat unhealthy foods or go through stress or trauma whilst they are pregnant usually notice a risk of delayed cognitive development when the child is an infant. On the other hand if the mother doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t smoke, eats healthy and remains stress and trauma free whilst going through the pregnancy, the infants cognitive development is usually normal.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Sophie Cook Houston Baptist University The Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 Introduction In the early 2000s, corporate financial statement fraud was rampant, as companies such as Enron and WorldCom used shady accounting practices to inflate their revenues and hide losses. This led to the introduction of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the most extensive form of accounting reform legislation ever passed. It had many consequences for publicly traded companies and public accounting firms, some of which were positive, while others were detrimental. One of the detrimental impacts, the cost of compliance, was alleviated at least partially by the introduction of Auditing Standard Five in 2007. This paper will examine the time period leading up to the passage of the act, the different parts of the legislation, the introduction of Auditing Standard Five, and the impact on registrants and auditors. History In the summer of 2001, questions began to arise about the integrity of Houston energy company EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements. In December, they filed for bankruptcy as their fraud came to light and the United States government froze all of their assets and began prosecuting their executives and their external auditing firm Arthur Anderson (Franzel 2014). Enron was not the only company using accounting loopholes to mislead stockholders though; Global Crossing, Tyco, Aldephia, WorldCom, and Waste Management all underwent investigation for similarShow MoreRelatedSarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Week # 2 Individual Assignment Ã¢â¬Æ' Sox Key Main Aspects for a Regulatory Environment Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in 2002 by former president George Bush. Essentially to combat the Enron crisis. The Sox Act basically has regulatory control and creates an enviroment that is looking out for the public. Ideally this regulatory environment protects the public from fraud within corporations. Understanding, that while having this regulatoryRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) was enacted to bring back public trust in markets. Building trust requires ethics within organizations. Through codes of ethics, organizations are put in line to conduct themselves in a manner that promotes public trust. Through defining a code of ethics, organizations can follow, market becomes fair for investors to have confidence in the integrity of the disclosures and financial reports given to them. The code of ethics include Ã¢â¬Å"the promotion of honest andRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 2002 Essay1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages well-known acts have been signed into laws by the presidents at the time to protect investors and consumers alike. A brief overview of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, a discussion of some of the provisions therein, opinions of others regarding the act and also my personal and professional opinion will be discussed below. The same will be examined about the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Senators Paul Sarbanes and Michael Oxley were the sponsors of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002Read MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) was enacted to bring back public trust in markets. Building trust requires ethics within organizations. Through codes of ethics, organizations conduct themselves in a manner that promotes public trust. Through defining a code of ethics, organizations can follow, the market becomes fair for investors to have confidence in the integrity of the disclosures and financial reports given to them. The code of ethics includes the promotion of honest and ethical conductRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, also known as the SOX Act, is enacted on July 30, 2002 by Congress as a result of some major accounting frauds such as Enron and WorldCom. The main objective of this act is to recover the investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ trust in the stock market, and to p revent and detect corporate accounting fraud. I will discuss the background of Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and why it became necessary in the first section of this paper. The second section will be the actÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations for the management, externalRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 2002 Essay1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. This Act was placed into law to protect the consumer against fraudulent activity by organizations. This paper will provide a brief history of the law and discuss some of the ethical components and social implications on corporations. This research will provide information on how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act affects smaller organizations and how it encourages employees to inform of wrong doings. Brief Synopsis of Sarbanes-Oxley The U.S. Congress passed the Sarbanes-OxleyRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20022137 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdishonest act that remained common amongst companies such as Enron, WorldCom, and Tyco was the fabrication of financial statements. These companies were reporting false information on their financial statements so that it would appear that the companies were making profits. However, those companies were actually losing money instead. Because of these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ actions, the call to have American businesses to be regulated under new rules served as a very important need. In 2002, Paul Sarbanes from theRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Cheeseman, 2013). Congress ordered the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX Act) to shield customers from the fraudulent exercises of significant partnerships. This paper will give a brief history of the SOX Act, portray how it will shield general society from fraud inside of partne rships, and give a presumption to the viability of the capacity of the demonstration to shield purchasers from future frauds. History of the SOX Act Congress established the Sarbanes-Oxley ActRead MoreSarbanes Oxley Act of 20021322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Descriptions of the main aspects of the regulatory environment which will protect the public from fraud within corporations are going to be provided in this paper. A special attention to the Sarbanes Ã¢â¬â Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) requirement; along with an evaluation of whether Sarbanes-Oxley Act will be effective in avoiding future frauds based on their implemented rules and regulations. The main aspects of the regulatory environment are based on the different laws and regulationsRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 2002 Essay1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was the result of a number of large financial scandals in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s. One of the most well-known corporate accounting scandals was the Enron scandal, which was exposed in 2001. Enron, an energy company that was considered one of the most financially sound corporations in the United States before the scandal, produced false earnings reports to shareholders and kept large debts off the accounting books (Peavler, 2016). Enron executives
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Poison Tree by Andres Medina The poison tree the author speaks about the containment of emotion.The author is angry at his friend but forgives him so his anger ends.Ã¢â¬ I was angry with my friend:I told my wrath, my wrath did end.Ã¢â¬ (Blake).I was angry with my foe:I told it not, my wrath did grow.(Blake)The author gets angry with his enemy but doesnt tell him so it doesnt end , and grows into a tree.The tree then produces a fruit, Ã¢â¬Å"Till it bore an apple bright.Ã¢â¬ (Blake)The enemy steals the apple, and eats it.The foe who ate the apple lies died under the tree of poison Ã¢â¬Å"My foe outstretched beneath the tree.Ã¢â¬ (Blake) .This poem main theme is the containment of emotions.William Blake uses tone,metaphors,and other literary devices to express the theme of emotions in his poem. The tone of the poison tree switches from being able to forgive to anger.Ã¢â¬ I was angry with my friend:I told my wrath, my wrath did end.Ã¢â¬ (Blake) He forgives his friend and the anger ends immediately.Then he talks about his enemy I was angry with my foe:I told it not, my wrath did grow.(Blake) This shows that the tone has changed.The author was able to forgive his friend but not his enemy.This leads to his anger to keep growing my wrath did grow.(Blake) This brings us back on the theme of containment of emotions.The author has a change of tone we he speaks of his foe.His foe is the reason of his anger.If the speaker would to talk to his foe it might just end.The containment of emotion
Statement of the research: We consider steady laminar and fully developed fluid motion in the annulus of two circular pipes with longitudinal fins attached to the outer surface of the inner pipe. The fins are straight, non porous and uniformly distributed around the region with parabolic cross section and are assumed to be highly conductive. At the inner pipe wall the flow is subjected to be thermal boundary condition of uniform heat input per unit axial length with circumferentially uniform temperature at any cross section. We will write a custom essay sample on Laminar Forced Convective Heat Transfer or any similar topic only for you Order Now Under highly conductive thin wall assumption, this boundary condition to be imposed at the interface of fluid and thin wall. Through numerical simulation of laminar convection in the annulus region we investigate the effect of parabolic fin configuration in the annulus region. Introduction Heat exchanger are used in a wide range of engineering areas of energy production and conversion for example the generation of electric power. Geothermal sources, chemical processing, space heating. All of these application involve heat transfer phenomena. The design of heat exchanger like boiler condenser and radiators, their size and performance analysis is necessary for heat transfer. The performance of heat exchanger system may be improved by employing various techniques. We can use the treated surface, rough surface, coiled surface, helical surface, surface variation and fluid variation etc. The use of double pipe heat exchanger is very important it is simplest to all heat exchanger. Double pipe is also known as concentric pipe. Typically double pipe heat exchanger are design to provided counter current flow and also used for low heat duties. The inner pipe can be plan or have longitudinal fins are attached to increase the surface available for heat transfer. The use of fins is very important. These fins are attached by welding. When we cannot increase the heat transfer coefficient and the temperature difference between object and fluid. Calculation of fin efficiency in heat exchanger engineering is very important because of the evaluation of the fin surface performance. Aim of the research: The aim of optimization is to find the number and shape of the fins and the way of placement beside each other in a way that achieve the most rate of heat transfer. We want to see that if we change the shape of fins what will be the effect on the rate of heat transfer. Literature review: Cuce,E, et al (2017).A longitudinal cylindrical fin profile in under interest for the optimization research. The effect of longitudinal parabolic perforation on the fin parameters such as temperature distribution, effectiveness and efficiency in which the fin surface is cooled by convection and radiation. CHO, H, et al (2014).The effect of fin geometry on the performance of a concentric heat exchanger. The concentric heat exchanger consist of inner and outer tube. The inner tube has a lot of serrated fins manufactured on its surface to increase the heat transfer performance. Both inner and outer tubes have the same length. The fin height should be determined by the criteria of the pressure drop. Iqbal, Z, et al (2011). Parabolic fins have been investigated for maximum convection flow is considered to be steady, laminar, incompressible and fully developed subjected to constant flux boundary condition. Finite element method is employed to compute field variable for providing function values. A comparison of optimal configuration of parabolic fins with those of trapezoidal and triangular fins indicate no single fin shape. Mohapatra, K, et al (2015). To determine the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristic of an internally finned tube for changing the flow conditions Oclon, p, et al (2015). The heat exchanger is used to cool down the hot flue gas. The CFD (computational fluid dynamic) simulation were conducted in order to determine the velocity and temperature variations for flue gas flow in the inlet tubular space of a cross flow heat exchanger. The total heat transfer rate, outlet gas temperature and the maximum temperature of tube wall for various gas inlet velocities were determined. Syed, K.S, et al (2011). A steady and laminar flow has been numerically simulated in a fully developed annulus region of a finned double pipe subjected to the fixed boundary condition at the inner pipe wall, friction factor, Nusselt number flow characteristic against variation in the ratio of radii of inner pipe and outer pipe, fin height, fin half angle number of fins all of these shows the significant enhancement in the heat transfer in both cases. When sufficient pumping power is available or not. Shah.R.K et. al (2003). Double pipe heat exchanger are economical closed cycle cooling system where a suitable water is available at a reasonable cost to meet the water requirements. The design analysis and comparative study on different flow types is carried out theoretically and experimentally. The performance analysis is done by CFD (computational fluid dynamic) and the total effectiveness is determined. Taler, D, et al (2014) plate fin and tube heat exchanger operate in a cross flow. In order to determine the velocity field and heat transfer characteristic the numerical method must be used. The CFD (computational fluid dynamic) codes allows to obtain the local values of the heat transfer co efficient. these values of heat transfer co efficient can be obtained by the heat transfer formula for the nusselt number, determined with CFD simulation, that can be directly implemented in the thermal designing procedure of the flow heat exchanger. Method /Approuch: There are many choice of numerical method for solving partial differential equations. Which method is more efficient than the other method depending on the particular problem. We study the two numerical method. The finite difference method and the Discontinuous Galerkin method. We use Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM) as compared to finite difference method because the DGFEM (Discontinuous finite element method) is flexible with complex geometries it also overcomes the key limitation on achieving the high order accuracy on general grids. Moreover the discontinuous nature between the elements make the method suitable for multiphysics. DG (Discontinuous Galerkin) method are readily parallelized. The finite difference method is conceptually simple and easy to implement. But has difficulties in handling complex geometries of the computational domain. Our problem is solving the effect of parabolic fin thickness and fin height laminar convection in the annulus double pipe heat exchanger. To solve our problem we will seek the efficient numerical method that most accurate approximation at low computational cost. References Cuce, E., Oztekin, E. K., Cuce, P. M. (2017). Heat transfer enhancement in cylindrical fins through longitudinal parabolic perforations. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 1-7. CHO, H., KIM, T., KIM, J., LEE, C., CHOI, J. (2014). Simulation results for the effect of fin geometry on the performance of a concentric heat exchanger. International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration, 22(04), 1450026. Iqbal, Z., Syed, K. S., Ishaq, M. (2011). Optimal convective heat transfer in double pipe with parabolic fins. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 54(25-26), 5415-5426 Mohapatra, K., Mishra, D. P. (2015). Effect of fin and tube configuration on heat transfer of an internally finned tube. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat Fluid Flow, 25(8), 1978-1999. Oc?o?, P., ?opata, S., Nowak, M., Benim, A. C. (2015). Numerical study on the effect of inner tube fouling on the thermal performance of high-temperature fin-and-tube heat exchanger. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, 15(5), 290-306. Syed, K. S., Ishaq, M., Bakhsh, M. (2011). Laminar convection in the annulus of a double-pipe with triangular fins. Computers Fluids, 44(1), 43-55. Shah, R. K., Sekulic, D. P. (2003). Fundamentals of heat exchanger design. John Wiley Sons. Taler, D., Oc?o?, P. (2014). Determination of heat transfer formulas for gas flow in fin-and-tube heat exchanger with oval tubes using CFD simulations. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 83, 1-11. How to cite Laminar Forced Convective Heat Transfer, Papers
INTRODUCTION: In this world every working organization is having its own conflicts and the way of managing that conflicts are also differ from others. Conflicts can become cause of stress for organization and for individual. There are different types of conflicts and several ways of resolving the conflicts. In this report, the conflicts of one working organization can be shown and the recommendations according to the Ã¢â¬Å"Blake and MoutonÃ¢â¬â¢s model of handling conflictsÃ¢â¬ to solve the conflicts of the organization. BACKGROUND OF ORGANIZATION: The organization is called Ã¢â¬Å"International Media CooperationÃ¢â¬ working as private channel since 1990. The organization is based in Pakistan and having one office in Dubai and one in United Kingdom. It broadcasts the transmission to different countries like Dubai, Pakistan, United Kingdom, and United States of America. There are different department in each office having large numbers of employees. There is one labor union to solve small issues of labors. Every department has a manager and an assistant manager. The organization is at the highest position in the market of Pakistan, with many competitors. As other organizations, this organization is also having several conflicts and to keep the organization alive and at the top of others, the conflicts should be resolved. Before exploring the conflict of the organization, it is essential to understand conflict and its types. CONFLICT: Conflict is state of mind it usually arises between two parties and these two parties are aware of that conflict. In any national or multinational organization, every individual has separate values and interest, these values and interest become base of conflicts. Conflict may arise among employees of the organization, between different departments, within working group and with shareholders. Within the organization there are many reasons which can create conflict like wages, equal opportunities, negotiations and employee involvement. CONTRASTING FRAME OF REFERENCING: There are four types of frame of conflict which are based on different characteristics made by ALAN FOX in 1966-1973. These frames are described as follow: 1. Unitarist 2. Pluralist 3. Interactionist 4. Redical Ã¢â¬ ¢ THE UNITARIST: Stephen Ackroyd and Paul Thompson (1999) and Johnson (2000) have given the important points of the unitarist . According to Stephen and Paul, unitarist believes a commonality of interests between organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and the senior of the organization like managers. Unitarist assumes that manager is changing the behavior of the employees of the organization, having some conflict, by the help of conflict resolving methods. Ã¢â¬ ¢ THE PLURALIST: This frame of reference considers that organization is an assemblage and every group has dissimilar interests which may cause conflicts. This frame refuses, that the employees and the management of the organization are both having same interest. According to the pluralist, the conflict is irresistible but not that much harmful. Conflict can be use as a positive energy by observing the bad points of the organization and to make changes for the betterment of the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ THE INTERACTIONIST: This frame of reference assumes that for the effective and impressive performance, the conflict can become one of the energetic and positive force. The interactionist accept that the conflict is unavoidable should be promote whenever it comes forth in view. If there is peaceful environment in every department, the chances of groupthink will be increased as identified by Irving Janis in 1982 and by Coser and Schwenk in 1990. In order to make employees motivated and active, managers in the organization keep fear and conflict but minimum level. Ã¢â¬ ¢ THE RADICAL: The radical frame views that any organization or workplace is the platform where conflict usually arises between employees and manager. This frame is established on the Karl Marx review of capitalism. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s research has two basic elements, the first, Ã¢â¬Å"means of productionÃ¢â¬ which refers to the raw material and machines and, the second, Ã¢â¬Å"organization of labourÃ¢â¬ which refers to the employees. CONFLICTS CAN CAUSE STRESS: In organization every employee has his own ideas and interests. These separate views can cause conflict and may become a reason to unpleasant environment in the organization. If an employee is in conflict with someone at work, then he can suffer from anger, fear and different psychological problems. Conflict can act as a stressor. According to Landis and Umberson (1988), conflict has strong effect on any individual working in organization. CONFLICTS OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIA COOPERATION: The international media cooperation is medium size organization. It has different offices in different countries. In each office several employees are working at many levels in separate departments. Many senior managers with great experience engage with this organization but the problems usually arise which are uncontrollable for the managers. Nevertheless, experience person in the organization, does effect the performance of the organization but this is the science and technology era which changes rapidly. In this organization abundant of conflicts exist which are becoming reasons of fall of performance and unpleasant environment of the organization. Some of the conflicts of this organization are described as follow. STAFF MANAGEMENT: The international media cooperation works is multinational company. Mostly, transfer of staff in this type of organization is very common. If one experience manager of the east got transferred to the west, problems will create in managing staff of different culture. The communication between employees and the manager of diverse culture becomes arduous. Every country has distinct laws and it has strong influence on the organization. If the manager is not aware of laws of the country, management of employees becomes indurate. CONFLICT BETWEEN MANAGER AND INDIVIDUAL: Though, managers of the organization are skillful but unaware with the latest ways of management. The use of antiquated ideas and practices may become cause of misunderstanding. The mangers of this organization are arrogant and do not want any employee to explore their qualities. In addition, managers become more concern about their jobs because of confronting capable employees of lower positions. Whenever, managers have to cope with multicultural talented employees, managers become impolite and because of this personal fear of managers, the communication gap between managers and employees is increasing steadily. CONFLICT WITHIN GROUPS: In 1997 De Drue and Van de Vliert assumed that the conflict in group or in the relation of individuals depends on the personal choice, style, preferences and opposing values. In this organization every department has its own goals to achieve. Some departments make group of employees to handle certain situation. Everyone is different from others and has personal view and ideas. But in group working these personal views can be disliked by other employees. Few of the employees are over efficient and do not pin their ears back. Managers mostly do not interfere in these matters and give priorities to other work. Minor conflict within the groups can make organization far from its goal. STEREOTYPES: Some of the employees of different departments consider that they are unique and prestigious for organization. In this organization, mostly the employees working in human resource management, finance and production assume that they are superior to other employees of different department. Some of employees are from rich background and do not want to assist person of middle class and steadily lead to the conflict. When an employee from one country goes to different country offices to work, sometimes, has to face stereotype employees of diverse culture. An organization is the place where one spends most of the time and whenever one has to work with stereotype employees then it becomes difficult to focus on the goal. CONFLICT WITHIN VIRTUAL TEAMS: According to Yuhyung Shin (2005), Virtual teams are the group of employees which are geographically scattered and use technological modes to achieve the goal of the organization. In this organization, employees have to coordinate with of other countries employees, with the help of telephone and information technology. For instance, when a transmission officer has to broadcast any program to other countries, he has to coordinate to the employees of that country office. Furthermore, employees usually are unable to understand the information and instruction by technological modes. It becomes difficult for the employee to receive guidance and elucidate the task when the manager or senior is not physically present. These misunderstanding between employees of diverse culture and different background create conflicts within virtual teams. LACK OF COORDINATION: Coordination is obligatory when the organization has divided the task into groups. In this organization, groups are there within departments to accomplish the small tasks and then there are virtual teams to coordinate and to bring good performance. Because of arrogant managers of the organization, stereotype employees and mismanagement, the coordination among employees of the organization becomes atrocious. Lack of coordination leads conflicts and less hierarchy or harmony in the organization. TIME MANAGEMENT: Time management is very essential in this organization. If any program has to be on air then everyone has to be cautious of time. In different cultures people act in dissimilar ways. If the time is important for employees of one country, it is not necessary has the same importance for the other country employees. Some employees in some countries do linger work. In addition, lack of coordination cause delays of work and mismanagement of time effects on employees and the organization performance. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: It is necessary to resolve the conflicts to achieve the goal of the organization and to make better performance. There are myriad ways to manage the conflicts in the organization. It depends on the organization which theory they want to apply to solve the conflicts. Several theories can be found on conflict management but the effective one is of Blake and Mouton theory of Leadership Grid. BLAKE AND MOUTON LEADERSHIP GRID: Robert Blake and Jane Mouton invented a theory in 1964 which is known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid. Many of the companies in America, Japan and England accept their view that the main hindrance in way of success is the planning and communications. With the help of Blake and Mouton model one can identify the conflicts and recuperate the management style of the organization. According to this model, there are two important aspects of management style. The concern for production is the first one, which involve task achievement, unit of output, quantity of good ideas and the burden of work. The second concern is for people, which involves employee needs, commitment, job security, obligations and interactive associations. The four styles of Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid are as follow: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Impoverished management: This style is based on belief that conflict can be resolve if a person takes neutral position. A person should eschew with those people who are avoiding conflict. Avoiding involve passive stance. This avoidance is become lose situation. One cannot avoid the importance of conflict in the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authority-compliance management: This style assumes that controlling of employees is essential. It believes that employees of the organization will perform well when they feel controlled by someone. Managers are more concern for the production of the organization instead of employee feelings, attitude and ideas. This forcing, confrontational style creates win-lose situation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Country club management: This style assumes that performance will be better if managers keep friendly relations with employees. This can reduce the conflicts in the organization. This accommodating style creates lose-win situation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Middle of the road management: It is based of belief that whenever there is conflict, it is essential to compromise. It is good to accept others ideas and to cooperate with other employees of the organization. It will be beneficial for the organization if one employee helps other employees and understand others situation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Team management: This style based on belief that there is no conflict between employees and the organization because needs of both are congruent. This seems the most effective style of the model. It concern for both, employees and for management. This style creates win-win situation. RECOMMENDATION FOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIA COOPERATION: International media cooperation is confronting with several conflicts. It will be beneficial for them to use Ã¢â¬Å"Team managementÃ¢â¬ style of Blake and Mouton model. Team management style focus on that the management and the employees need are interconnected. It satisfied both, the employees and the organization. It involves exchange of information and gives priority to good ideas. Moreover, managers have to understand employees and give chance to explore their ideas. ManagersÃ¢â¬â¢ aim is to build team work for that it is necessary to resolve the conflict. There will increase in productivity and performance if the conflicts resolve by managers. Coordination will become better if one starts understanding others point of view and put oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self in others shoe. Communication will be reduced and conflicts can be resolved if one give chance to other to present idea and keep one similar objective in mind. ACTION PLAN: This is a duty of managers to observe the working style of each employee. Managers should be more energetic and concern for the organizational objective. Training is necessary for everyone in the organization. If the organization is medium size, then it should give training to managers and then managers can transfer their knowledge to other employees by doing workshops. Coordination can become better if managers give right instructions to the employees. Managers have to make employees believe, that the organization objective is similar to the employee. CONCLUSION: In every organization, some conflicts do exist. Sometime conflicts arise among individual, sometimes between employees and organization. The major conflict arises because of the communication gap or miscommunication. International media cooperation is also facing some conflicts. There is always a solution of the problem. Many conflict theories are there to resolve conflict but the best one is of Blake and Mouton of leadership grid. The international media cooperation should adhere to the conflict management theory of Blake and Mouton. Nevertheless, it depends on the organization to choose one of method of conflict management but in Ã¢â¬Å"team managementÃ¢â¬ everybody is going to win. Reduction in conflict will be effective for the environment of the organization and for the performance.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Teen Drug Abuse in America In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society drugs are taking away our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and it is making headlines every day. Ã¢â¬Å"In Vancouver, Washington, a 13-year old boy was found dead after allegedly swallowing twenty-four cold-medicine pills to get highÃ¢â¬ (Taylor 45). Ã¢â¬Å"Nine Florida middle-school students were taken to the hospital after their strange behavior and illness at school led school officials to discover that they had overdosed on an over-the-counter cold medicationÃ¢â¬ (Taylor 45). A childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s hospital in Wisconsin treated two teenage girls for liver failure after they consumed close to 20 tablets containing a common cold remedy. Ã¢â¬ (Taylor 45). There are many more cases like this happening every day. Why is drug abuse increasing amongst American teens? Teens use drugs because of curiosity, family influence, and painful emotions. One reason for teen drug use is curiosity to experiment with drugs. Some children are left at h ome during the summer or after school and become bored. They try drugs to cure their boredom. Two major conditions necessary for drug and alcohol use, is availability and acceptabilityÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 26). Ã¢â¬Å"In a recent survey of high school students, more than 70% of students reported it was easy to buy drugs at schoolÃ¢â¬ (Teen Abuse 26). They often use drugs if it fits toward them so they can find the drug that best fits them. Ã¢â¬Å"During their adolescence, drug use by peers and older role models are strong influences on teensÃ¢â¬â¢ experimentation and regular use habitsÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 26). The places where they can find drugs are in the most common and innocent place and even places of learning. Drugs are found in high schools consist of marijuana, alcohol, pain killers, saliva, crystal meth, and even cocaine. Ã¢â¬Å"Kids who seek these and other effects can buy the drug at a local store, find it in medicine cabinets at home. Ã¢â¬ (Teen Abuse of LEGAL Drugs is serious Medicine 46). And sometimes they hang around other children that do drugs together as a group. Ã¢â¬Å"Unlike other adolescents, these addicted teen moved into peer groups that embrace drug useÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 26). You may think that if you keep using a particular drug, you will be addicted to it, but that does not always happen. Most adolescent who experiment with drugs and alcohol do not become addictedÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 26). But it is bad enough they get too comfortable of using drugs, they often donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about the trouble that comes with it. Ã¢â¬Å"Those who move onward to abuse and addiction do not stop with occasional use. They begin to use marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol on a reg ular basis, and will seek the drugs even when they begin to suffer negative consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 26). The negative consequence affects the daily life of drug abusers but destroys future. Also, another reason that children abuse drugs is that they are affected by the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ home lifestyle. Ã¢â¬Å"Although peer influence is a large force in teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, families continue to have much influence on their teenagersÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). The parentÃ¢â¬â¢s reasons are different, some may not allow drugs, but there some parents that allow their children to do drugs. Ã¢â¬Å"If substance is legal or adults, parents tend to think itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe for use by childrenÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). Parents allow drugs or alcohol to be used around the house with them there and having it at parties that their children are hosting. They believe that supervised drinking is not harmful, and they purchase alcohol for parties for their teens, and share their cigarettes with their teensÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). Some parents even have the medicines open to have easy access and their children lured themselves in of taking them. They also give them prescripti on medicine to use when they are not feeling well. Ã¢â¬ Not only are medication with high addictive potential stored in easily accessible cabinets, parents will give their pain killers, tranquilizers, and stimulants to their children for relief of mild pain, sleeplessness, or weight controlÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). Mainly, some parents leave their children alone at home, or just leave them unsupervised. Ã¢â¬Å"Research studies have founded that adolescents who do not find a parent at the home after school are more likely to smoke tobacco regularly, drink and get drunk regularly, and use marijuana regularly than teens that are better supervisedÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). These teens that are less likely to be supervised are using drugs more. Ã¢â¬Å"Unsupervised adolescents report a greater interest in trying illegal drugs that do teenagers who have a parent home to greet them when they return from schoolÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 28). Not having rules in the household affects the child and not communicating with them about their dreams, conflicts at school. Ã¢â¬Å"Levels of communication and trust also are low in the families we treat. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Parents tend to be uncomfortable expressing their values and concerns to their children, and concerns to their parents about their problems and dreamÃ¢â¬ (Teen Abuse 29). A way to prevent abuse of drugs, is simply talking with your child. Ã¢â¬Å"Just by talking to your kids you can decrease drug use probably by about a third,Ã¢â¬ said Thomas Gleaton, Jr. , president and co-founder of PRIDEÃ¢â¬ (TEEN DRUG ABUSE: BRINGING THE MESSAGE HOME 92). Finally, one of the important reasons why teens use drugs is to cope with their pain about everyday life and have fun with just because it feels good to use it. Ã¢â¬Å"Teens are using drugs and alcohol not to rebel or get high but as a way to escape for a short period of timeÃ¢â¬ (USA TODAY Section: Life, Pg. 06). Ã¢â¬Å"The increasing number of teens abusing prescription drugs is a very serious problem, says Calvina Fay, executive director of the Drug Free America Foundation. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Television advertisements for prescription drugs give children and teens the wrong impression about medicine, she saysÃ¢â¬ (USA TODAY Section: Life, Pg. 6) Teens basically see or hear the medicine on TV or radio, and thinks it is okay to use it. Ã¢â¬Å"Weve become a society that basically says, If things arent perfect in your life, take a pill, Fay says. Ã¢â¬ This causes our young people to see drugs as an answer (USA TODAY Section: Life, Pg. 06). But, if there no conflict with them, the y will use drugs to help them relax and have more fun. Ã¢â¬ But teens drink and smoke for other reasons as well. In the survey, 41% of boys responded that parties are more fun with drugs an increase from 34% in 2008. More than half reported that drugs help teens relax in social settingsÃ¢â¬ (USA TODAY Section: Life, Pg. 06). Lastly, the best way to win the battle of Teen Drug Alcohol Abuse is to stop and prevent it even from happening. Ã¢â¬ Whether the drug in question is alcohol, Ecstasy, or cough syrup, drug abuse continues to be a serious among adolescents. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As with any other problem in the school, education, awareness, and balance are the keys to prevention and to the development of potential solutionsÃ¢â¬ (Teen Abuse of LEGAL Drugs is Serious Medicine 48). And keeping update to the latest information, for example 12-step philosophy. Ã¢â¬Å"A strong sense of spirituality and connection to positive religious institutions appear to be protective factors against addiction, and our adolescent program has a strong spiritual component in addition to its emphasis on the 12-step philosophyÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 29). These are the following steps: Direct Prevention programs to the parents, increase parenting skills training programs, involve the entire family in prevention efforts, educate mental health providers and pediatricians. Anywhere in your local town can provide information about drug prevention to your family and help your familyÃ¢â¬â¢s management skills. Ã¢â¬Å"Community resources, such as community centers, places of worship, and schools, are good place for parents, teens, and other family members to learn about prevention and to increase their family management skillsÃ¢â¬ (Teen Drug Abuse 30). Also, a parent that talks to their children, also teachers talk to their students about it before the subject comes up helps prevent it. Ã¢â¬Å"Some schools and parents are tackling the problem on two fronts: talking and testing. In a school in Texas, students have taken drug tests voluntarily. Those who passed were given cards entitling them to discounts at 150 local businesses. The discounts served incentives to keep teens off drugs. And the possibility of random drug tests has helped some youth ward off peer pressure to experiment with drugs in the first placeÃ¢â¬ (TEEN DRUG ABUSE: BRINGING THE MESSAGE HOME 92). And being there for that child will help then make good choices and donÃ¢â¬â¢t use drugs is always the best prevention. Such protective factors include positive interactions with an adult role model, high self-esteem and social skills in resisting negative peer pressure. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Youth must also be instructed in analyzing conflicting mass media message about drugs, says Bailey. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Communities can help deter drug use by providing a range of drug-free social and recreational optionsÃ¢â¬ (The Futurist: Future Scope 8). The battle of drug abuse is still on this day, and the qu estion is up for discussion, are we losing to this battle called drug abuse among teenagers today? Three factors that still cause drugs abuse is curiosity, effects by the parents and lifestyle at home, peer pressure, and the Ã¢â¬Å"escapeÃ¢â¬ . Drugs has a big effect in America and it needs to stop brainwashing teens today so teens today can live longer, be happier with themselves and be above the influence of peer pressure. Being above the influence is a way to say that they are not pressure from their friends to do bad things and having difficult, negative consequences for the rest of their life. Tony Blair, the youngest British prime minister of the 20th century when he took office in 1997 said these words: Ã¢â¬Å"The art of leadership is saying no, not saying yes. It is very easy to say yes. Ã¢â¬ These words get attention to many people, especially teens and children; they have to know how to say Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ before they said yes to anything, and it takes a leader to say no and walk alone you knowing you did the right thing. Works Cited Gordon, Susan M. TEEN DRUG ABUSE. (Cover story). Behavioral Health Management 23. 5 (2003): 25-30. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. William H. Richardson, et al. Teen Prescription Drug Abuse. Clinician Reviews 18. 11 (2008): 18-23. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. Perry, Patrick. TEEN DRUG ABUSE: BRINGING THE MESSAGE HOME. Saturday Evening Post 270. 3 (1998): 16-92. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. Preventing teen drug abuse. Futurist 26. 1 (1992): 8. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Aug. 2011. Stephanie, Steinberg. Teen girls: Kids get high to cope. USA Today n. d. : Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 8 Aug. 2011.